Earlier projects such as the 1991 Biosphere-2 experiment in Arizona, have shown that indoor agriculture can provide both food and oxygen to sustain human life in a fully closed plant-human ecosystem. The challenges encountered by the experiment have taught important lessons about closed systems.
Since then, huge advances have taken place on the level of indoor food production, soil bioscience and waste management. By using a continuous power source rather than sunlight and a controlled agricultural environment a significantly smaller and more reliable ecosystem can be created.


The gained knowledge and experience in true and complete resource recycling will be of tremendous value to interplanetary missions. Self-sustaining and closed human habitats are a necessary ingredient of our imminent venture beyond earth.